What Are Some of the Benefits and Risks of Clinical Trials?

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Many people participate in clinical trials around the world for a variety of reasons. For those participating in early stage research, they could be entirely healthy but are looking to benefit from a financial reward or simply help contribute to the advancement of medicine. On the other hand, those who are ill could be looking for an alternative or complementary treatment for their malady.

For anyone who is participating in this kind of research for whatever reasons, there are several risks and benefits which should be kept in mind. These are important to know for anyone who is considering undergoing various treatments in the name of research, regardless of the stage of the trial and your level of health at the time.

Some of the main advantages include that it is possible that a treatment can have a very positive effect on the health of the participant. Indeed, for those who are suffering with various ailments the chance of a speedy recovery thanks to a newly developed treatment is very attractive. This is especially the case with more serious illnesses with lower chances of a positive outcome.

The reality is that when people are seriously ill, they will seek out various types of treatment that can help them overcome a potentially life-threatening illness. It is a natural solution to seek out trials, and although not all succeed, this is another ray of hope for those suffering from an illness.

It should be noted that a disadvantage is that not all the outcomes are successful, and that there can even be negative side effects to undergoing experimental treatment options. It can be discouraging when treatments do not work, although this can be made much worse if there are negative side effects to deal with as well.

As a result, if you do find a clinical trial that you are interested in, it is absolutely vital that you make sure that you talk extensively with the medical team and your doctor about undergoing such a treatment. Possible side effects and outcomes should be discussed in order to enable you to take the right next step in deciding if it is for you or not.

The next major advantage of taking part in clinical trials is that it will help you gain access to even more doctors and medical experts than you would otherwise have. This is because clinical trials are carefully monitored and administered by expert medical teams and physicians, ensuring that each participant receives the best care possible.

For this reason, it can be reassuring and encouraging for those who are suffering from various illnesses to be dealing with professionals who are experts in that particular area of treatment or disease. This expanded amount of medical attention is often a key driver as well in encouraging individual to take part in trials and is a significant advantage.

The disadvantage of this is that treatment may require a greater investment of time that your normal treatment options would. You may have to spend more time in hospital or being monitored that you normally would, which can significantly impact your day to day life.

You could also be required to be more meticulous with the dosages of medication that you give yourself and be required to stay in hospital for longer periods of time. If you are in individual who hopes to carry on living an active life while you recover from your illness this is definitely a disadvantage to bear in mind.

These are just a couple of the significant advantages and disadvantages of undergoing clinical trials for a certain illness or a disease. Indeed, some individuals may participate as healthy volunteers, in which case they will need to bear in mind that the negatives and positives apply to them too.

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Concerns When Choosing a Clinical Research Organisation

There are many areas of the world where clinical research is being carried out for a range of different pharmaceutical companies studying numerous innovative treatments. Particular areas of the world where trials are on the rise include Latin America and Asia, which offer large populations that are often keen to participate in this kind of research.

Of course, for many pharmaceutical companies carrying out the clinical trials this requires finding a reputable company that can do so in the region of the world where they wish to conduct their research. This is important not only to ensure the quality and validity of results, but also that national regulation is followed.

There are several indicators of working with a quality and reputable third party clinical research organisation. The first one of these is that the organisation in question can offer highly experienced and qualified investigators for the studies that it conducts on behalf of pharmaceutical companies.

For any company seeking out an organisation to carry out clinical trials, this should be top priority as the results will only be as good as the investigators working on each project. Regardless of the organisation that each pharmaceutical company decides to work with, it is essential to check all necessary expert credentials before handing over the project.

In addition to ensuring that the team is fully competent and fully qualified, language is also another major consideration to make. This may seem almost trivial in a world where there are interpreters and translators, but ensuring that communication is fluid, easy and clear is essential to ensure a positive outcome.

This is because the clear details of a project are essential in order to ensure a positive outcome and that guidelines and procedures are followed correctly. In return the results and reports must also be clear and concise for the purpose of being used and analysed by the pharmaceutical company.

When dealing with an overseas clinical research organisation therefore, it is essential to ensure that language is not a barrier. Before deciding to work with any given organisation, each pharmaceutical should carefully vet the language skills of the research body to ensure that clear and accurate communication is possible.

The next thing that those looking to hire a clinical research contractor should be aware of is whether there are ample and well-equipped research facilities on hand. In addition to this, these facilities should also be able to stand up to the particular demands of the pharmaceutical companies.

This might mean that certain equipment is to be used or staff with certain qualifications or skills are to be employed. The more that the company can meet these demands the better, meaning that high quality and useful results will be produced.

Finally, it is important ask what the clinical research organisation does to ensure a high level of participation in its trials, and also how it retains participants. Each country will have higher or lower participation rates, not to mention retention rates.
Some areas – including Latin America – have high sign up and retention rates, as cultural and economic aspects are conducive to this. Other world areas have more positive, more negative, or more mixed results. In all cases, this is something worth considering, and it is important to know what the organisation does to improve both these rates.

These are just a few of the concerns and considerations that need to be made when a company is looking to carry out clinical trials in any corner of the globe. Ranging from the expertise of the staff that will be conducting the research right through to the retention rates of research participants, there are many different factors to consider that can have a huge impact on the results.

Designing Your Life: Unlocking the Infinite Possibilities

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Expert Author Aaron Ngoh

It’s the dream of every person to make the most of his/her life. Unfortunately, few are able to live the lives that they always wanted. This article is going to teach you what you need to do to unlock the infinite possibilities in your life:

Get rid of fear

Many people have big dreams, but very few chase after them. The main reason for this is: FEAR. People fear executing their business ideas as they are afraid that they will fail. Others fail approaching women of their dreams for fear of rejection.

You will never exploit your full potential if you are always in fear. To get rid of it you need to understand that fear is nothing but a false belief. Before coiling your tail behind your legs understand the actual and perceived risks involved in what you are doing.

Whenever you come across a situation that gives you fear, talk back to your negative thoughts and analyze the risks involved. If you are scared of executing a business plan, what are the risks involved? You will probably fail and learn an important lesson.

If you are scared of approaching a woman of your dream, what are the risks involved? The worst she can do is say: NO.

Get rid of fear and you will be on your way to unlocking infinite possibilities in your life.

Surround yourself with the right people

People are the most precious resources you can have in your life-but you need to surround yourself with the right ones.

As rule of thumb you should get rid of people who don’t have the same ambitions as you. Analyze your close friends and see whether they add value to your life. To unlock infinite possibilities, surround yourself with people who will help you reach your goals.

If you want financial success, surround yourself with financially successful people. There is no point of hanging around broke people as you will never learn how the rich make their money, so you will remain broke.

Unleash the power within

We all have a lot of potential within us, but most of us don’t realize it. The late Myles Munroe used to say that there is no wealthier place than the grave. This is true as most people die without exploiting an ounce of their potential.

Investing in yourself is the most effective way of unleashing your potential. Read books, attend seminars and conferences, and have role models that will help you unleash what is in your inside.

Change of environment is another way of unleashing the power within. It’s often said that not every environment is right for growth. You need to find an environment where you have the right resources and challenges to exploit your potential.

If you are born and raised in the rural areas, and you feel that the environment is limiting you, move to the urban areas.


Conquering your fears, associating yourself with the right people and unleashing the power within are three things that you should carry with yourself wherever you go. Execute them and you will definitely unlock the infinite possibilities in your life.

Short Run CD Printing Project Packaging Considerations

When you begin to look into the packaging requirements for your project, you will discover that there is a huge array of different types of CD packaging available for a wide range of purposes. Your choices range from very simple, inexpensive packaging, such as plastic or paper wallets; up to expensive, premium packaging types such as jakeboxes and bespoke printed metal tins.

Once again, the project budget will dictate the type of packaging you use but you will need to consider the intended end use of the packaged CD. Also, you will need to decide whether or not you will use a professional service to pack your CDs and this depend upon the quantity of CDs you are hoping to package as well as the packaging type. For instance, packing 500 CDs into plastic wallets can be done by hand in a couple of hours but packing 500 CDs into jewel, inserting the necessary paper parts and then wrapping each unit with plastic overwrap would take days if you tried to do this by hand. Most short run CD printing companies will have automated CD packaging facilities that can do this sort of packaging job very quickly.

The next section of this guide will help you to decide upon the best method of packaging your discs according to your particular short run CD printing project requirements:

Plastic or paper wallets

As mentioned, these are the cheapest option available and they offer little protection to the disc. They are obviously very lightweight and slim which means that they are most often used when a disc is to be included in some sort of printed media such as a magazine or brochure. They can be secured to a page within the media using glue spots to stop the disc and packaging from falling out but protecting the page from damage when removed. They are also useful if the CDs are to be given away at an exhibition or conference due to their low cost.

Card Wallets

Card wallets are a popular CD packaging choice due to their versatility. They are more robust than a plastic or paper wallet and offer better protection for the disc. The thicker the card stock used to make them, the better the protection offered. They can be digitally printed and either matt or gloss laminated to give a really premium feel to the packaging.

Most CD card wallet suppliers will offer a range of variants that will hold either a single or multiple discs. These variants are made using different templates; some hold the disc in a horizontal “pocket” type slot and some hold the disc or discs between two layers of card, the discs being inserted via the open end of the packaging.

Their lightweight, slim characteristics make them ideal for sending CDs through the post and, very often, if you order a CD online you will receive it in this sort of packaging. A card wallet can also be used where the disc is to be included with some form of printed media, especially where the inclusion of instructions for use of the CD are required and where indication or promotion of the contents is a project requirement.

For musicians who are selling audio CDs from a merchandise stall at a gig, CD card wallets are perfect as a large quantity of discs don’t take up too much room in the tour van but a good design and good quality wallet still means the purchasing fans are receiving a premium product.

Again, although more expensive than plastic or paper wallets, they are also great for giving away CDs at exhibitions if the project budget allows for it.

Jewel Cases

CD jewel cases are the standard packaging type most commonly associated with audio CDs purchased in a high street music shop. They are made of a clear polycarbonate plastic and are roughly square in shape. They offer great protection for the disc and can accommodate an information booklet. This is particularly useful for audio CDs where the artist wants to include song lyrics and acknowledgements, and also for software discs where instructions for use of the software are required. The standard jewel case is designed to take a booklet with up to 16 printed panels which equates to 4 sheets printed on both sides, folded and stapled along the spine.

CD jewel cases are a great presentation method for CDs but they are not particularly good for sending discs through the mail. This is mainly due to their increased bulk compared with a card wallet, but also because they are prone to shattering under heavy impact – particularly at the hinge points between the front and rear parts of the case. They would need to be well padded before sending through the post defeating the object of lowering postage costs.

If your project has encountered a requirement for additional storage and needs to be spread over multiple CDs, then there are jewel cases available that will accommodate up to 6 CDs. A case to house 2 discs will have a swinging disc tray that can hold a disc on either side and will be no more bulky than a standard CD jewel case. Cases housing more than 2 discs will have a thicker spine as they need to hold more than 1 CD tray inside. Conveniently, the paper parts still tend to be the same dimensions as those for a standard case.

Slim-line versions of the CD jewel case are also available, some of which do not require a printed rear CD tray card, should the project budget not stretch to a full size case or a thinner case is required for posting out a disc. Be aware, though, that the slim-line cases tend to be less robust than the standard cases.

DVD Cases

These are the type of case you would normally associate with a DVD movie or PC/console game. They are generally about 190mm x 135mm with a 14mm wide spine and are usually seen in black or clear form, although they are available in a wide range of colours. The DVD style case has the added advantage of being able to accommodate a larger information booklet than a CD jewel case. They are made using polypropylene plastic which is more flexible and less susceptible to impact damage than the polycarbonate jewel case.

DVD cases have a plastic liner adhered to the outside which allows them to have a printed wrapper inserted on the outside of the case. A case with a 14mm spine can contain up to 6 discs and there are also slim-line versions available that can contain from 1 to 4 discs with a 7mm spine. There are many variants of this type of case which are commonly available and will suit most short run CD printing projects, whether you need a case for a single disc with a large amount of printed material to accompany it, multiple discs or a combination of discs and printed material.

Clamshell cases or Trigger Cases

These CD cases are made from a polypropylene plastic material that is flexible and very robust. They offer great protection for the CD and the discs can be packed into them very quickly.

The trigger case has an ejection trigger in the top left corner opposite the open end of the case where the CD is inserted. This mechanism has 2 functions. Firstly, it holds the CD inside the case and when pressed, the trigger mechanism pushes the CD out of the case just enough that it can be grasped between two fingers and removed from the case. The trigger mechanisms are usually brightly coloured and the cases are usually clear plastic so that the printed CD surface can be seen through the case.

The clamshell case has a hinge along one edge and one half has a moulded in stud which has 2 functions. The stud holds the CD securely in place and the 2 halves of the case clip together over it. Clamshell cases are available in a range of translucent colours but are most commonly seen moulded in clear plastic to allow the CD print to be seen through the case.

These types of case are great for sending CDs through the post as they offer reliable protection for the disc and they are slim and lightweight. The clamshell cases, in particular, can be obtained relatively inexpensively and so are also great for handing out CDs at an industry show or exhibition.

Premium Packaging Types – Jakeboxes and Metal Tins

A jakebox is a card CD packaging type which contains a clever mechanism for securing the CD in place, and when the box is opened, the CD is presented to the user held in a cardboard claw. It’s a very impressive type of packaging which can be fully digitally printed to give the end user a real WOW factor. The drawback is that they are expensive and are generally only used for special or limited edition releases where the user needs to be given something extra for their money. Metal tins can also be printed and can be formed into the desired shape, either a simple round tin, a DVD case sized tin or a shape of your choice relating to the contents of the CD. Again, this is an expensive packaging type as a mould needs to be made before hand to produce the tins and the material itself is more expensive than card or plastic.


Consider the intended end use for your short run CD printing project before selecting a packaging type and do your research on-line to work out costs. Speak to suppliers for quotes and weigh up the cost of your time and effort if you’re intending produce the packaging in-house, compared with an outside supplier cost.